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8. General Terms

Constantin BahlmannConstantin Bahlmann

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Abstract
Applicants
Citations
Claims
Country Code
Description
Index (also Similarity Index)
IPC
Kind Code
Patent Family
Priority Date
References
Title


Abstract
The abstract is the technical summary of the underlying invention. It is supposed to give brief technical information about the disclosure as contained in the description, claims and any drawings.

Applicants
Applicants are the owners of the patent.

Citations
Citations or so called forward citations to an underlying patent are all later patent applications in which search reports the underlying patent is cited. Currently our search system lists all citations provided by EP search reports.

Claims
The claims section of a patent document defines the matter of which protection is sought in terms of technical features of the invention.

Country Code
Country codes consist of two letters (e.g. US, EP, DE) indicating the country or organization where the patent application was filed or granted.

Description
The description section is usually the largest part of a patent document. It should specify the technical field to which the invention relates, indicate the background art as far as known to the applicant, disclose the invention (i.e. the technical problem and its solution), briefly describe the figures and drawings in the document, explain at least one way of carrying out the invention. Moreover, the description should if it is not obvious indicate the way in which the invention is industrially applicable.

Index (also Similarity Index)
Similarity Index reflects statistical and semantic similarity between documents. The index range is centered between a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 1.000. Independent of the underlying technology patents with a similarity of less than 100 will not be returned. A similarity value of 1.000 means the text is not only semantically but also lexically identical. Due to our complex algorithms the value of the index cannot be interpreted in a strictly linear manner (e.g. a patent pair with a value of 400 is not a third more similar than a patent pair with a value of 300).

IPC
The International Patent Classification (IPC), established by the Strasbourg Agreement 1971, provides a hierarchical system of language independent symbols for the classification of patents and utility models according to the different areas of technology to which they pertain. The classification is continuously updated and improved. More information on the the IPC classification will be given by the WIPO.

Kind Code
Kind Codes define the type or the status of a patent publication. Kind Codes usually consist of a character and a number appearing right to the patent number. The kind code documents the history of a patent publication. For example kind code “A1” of an EP patent specifies an European patent application published with European search report. “B1” reflects a granted European patent.

Patent Family
Set of related patent applications filed in one or more countries to protect the same or a similar invention by a common inventor and linked by a common priority (or priorities). Basically there are several patent family definitions. In this system we relate to the widely used DOCDB family definition of the European Patent Office.
Patent Publication Number
The Patent Publication Number is the number assigned to a patent application on publication. Publication numbers basically consist of a country code (two letters) and a serial number, e.g.: EP2007. A kind code, e.g. A1 or B1 (EP2007A1), can optionally be assigned to the patent number. Kind codes as well as leading zeros like EP0002007 will be harmonized by the novis search system.

Priority Date
The publication date of a patent document is the date on which a patent application is first published. It is the date on which the document is made available to the public, thereby making it part of the state of the art. In our data we use the publication of the first EP patent document of the DOCDB patent family.

References
References of an underlying patent are all earlier patents that are cited as prior art in the examiner search report of this underlying patent published during examination. Currently our search system lists all references that are provided by EP search reports.

Title
The short title of a patent document must clearly and concisely state the technical designation of the invention and must exclude all fancy names.

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